Apollo Cancer Institutes (Cancer Care) - FAQs

What Is Cancer?

What is cancer?

Cancer is an abnormal growth of a body cell or group of cells. If it is not destroyed or removed, cancer can spread very rapidly, and eventually lead to death.

What is the difference between normal and cancerous growth?

There are billions of cells in the human body. Normally, they grow in a well-regulated pattern. When cancer sets in, a group of cells suddenly start multiplying haphazardly and form a lump or "tumour".

How many kinds of tumours are there?

There are two kinds of tumour - Malignant & Benign. A benign tumour is more common, and is generally harmless. It doesn't spread to other parts of body. A malignant tumour on the other hand, never stops growing unless until treated and can spread to other parts of the body. cancer is the name given to a malignant growth.

Is cancer contagious or infectious?

No. Since cancer is not caused by a germ, it is not "catching", and cannot be transmitted from one person to another.

Is cancer a blood disease?

No. cancer cells may move through the blood stream to another part of the body indicating spread of disease. Cancer can however develop in certain tissues, which form the blood cells.

How does cancer spread

In 3 ways.

  1. Cancer cells grow through the walls of blood vessels and are carried by the blood stream to other parts of the body.
  2. They enter the lymphatic stream and are carried to the lymph glands.
  3. They grow directly in contiguity from one tissue to another.

How fast does cancer grow?

There is no definite rate of growth of cancer tissue. Some cancers grow fast and some are slow growing. For example it takes 2 to 5 years for breast cancer to develop to 1cm.

Is cancer a single disease?

No. The term "cancer" includes all forms of malignant growth. Very many varieties are known. These have certain characteristics in common, such as uncontrolled growth, a tendency to spread widely in the body and fatal termination if not treated early and adequately. They differ in certain characteristics, such as location in the body, microscopic appearance, and response to treatment.

How can you tell if you have cancer?

There are 7 early warning signals. But the real tragedy about cancer is that it produces very minor symptoms at first. So you could have cancer and not know it. The best way to detect cancer is to have a regular yearly check-up.

How does a doctor tell if growth is cancerous?

By performing a biopsy or FNAC i.e. examining a small portion of the tissue under a microscope. In advanced cases, physical examination alone may reveal the diagnosis. But the chances of cure at late stage are very poor.

Are cancer and leprosy related?

No. Leprosy is caused by a germ. Both the symptoms and the treatment for the two diseases are entirely different.

Is cancer a modern disease?

As long ago as 3,000 BC., Egyptian historians made references to " tumours and ulcers". Mummies from the Gizeb Pyramids were found to have cancer involving the bones. But the incidence of cancer is increasing. It is related to 'our life styles and urbanisation i.e, tobacco, alcohol use, pollution, preserved and junk food etc. "It is becoming a disease of modernization.

Are some people more prone to certain types of cancer?

Yes. Your life-style may make you more prone to some cancers. e.g. cancers of the colon, lung and skin are common in Britain and U.S.A. Cancers involving the oral cavity are more common in India. In women, cancer of the breast, uterus and gall bladder are common.

What are your chances of getting cancer.

One out of every 8 Indians develop cancer in their lifetime. There are about 8.5 lakh cancer patients in India alone (Year, 2000). Though cancer can occur at any age, the incidence is high after the age of 40 to 45.

What Causes It?

What causes cancer?

Though it is very difficult to pinpoint the definite cause. Certain substances, known as carcinogens, can definitely increase your chances of getting cancer. For instance, people who smoke or chew tobacco are more prone to mouth, throat and lung cancer, Contrary to popular opinion, beedi smoking is twice as dangerous as cigarettes. Continued irritation of tissues can lead to cancer. Pollution, preserved food, smoked and junk food are also contributory. Even certain viruses can cause cancer (EBV, Hepatitis B, HPV). Amongst other known causes are asbestos, arsenic, pitch, tar, ultraviolet rays.

Is cancer caused by a germ?

There is no scientific evidence that cancer is directly caused by a germ. Although certain viruses are known to cause cancer but they form < 2% of the cancer burden.

Does cancer come form a single bruise?

No. A single injury to soft tissue or bone does not give rise to cancer.

What is the relation of food to cancer?

High fat, low roughage western diet predisposes to colon cancer. Diet rich in animal fats also contributes to breast cancer. Green leafy vegetables and fresh fruits contain certain antioxidants which prevent cancer. Recently tomato, ginger and cabbage etc. have been found to have medicinal antioxidant property. Avoid junk food, smoked food and preserved food. Be vegetarian and prevent cancer!

Will irregularity in eating cause cancer of the stomach?

There is no scientific evidence that it will, since cancer of stomach may occur in people who eat most regularly.

Does eating hot food cause cancer?

There is little evidence that the temperature of food is an important factor in development of cancer. But recently too hot food has been correlated with food pipe cancer. Too spicy food may be related to stomach cancer as is evident from its high incidence in Southern parts of India.

Does the use of alcohol bear any relation to cancer?

Alcohol is a predisposing factor for the development of cancer of oesophagus, laryngopharynx and liver.

Is cancer hereditary ?

There are probably inherited tendencies that may lead to cancers of different types. The presence of cancer in one or both parents should be a cause for greater alertness in looking for and recognizing suspicious symptoms in the individual. Cancer however is not inherited except for one type of eye cancer known as Retinoblastoma. Only 5% of breast cancers are considered hereditary.

Can cancer be transmitted by kissing or casual contact between person or between persons and animals?

No. There is no record of cancer having been transmitted by kissing or by any contact, accidental or otherwise, between individuals or between person and animals.

Do corns become cancerous?

Cancer may occur in any tissue to the body, but a corn does not as a rule develop into cancer.

Do freckles turn into cancer?

Simple freckles do not. However, flat moles containing pigment of a bluish-black colour and looking like dark freckles, may become cancerous and should be checked periodically.

Do piles turn into cancer?

No. Piles or hemorrhoids are merely enlarged veins in the rectal wall. Cancer is occasionally found in the tissue above the hemorrhoids. So "bleeding piles" should be examined carefully to determine whether cancer is also present. Rectal bleeding can occur due to cancer.

Can one's mental condition influence the course of cancer?

Cancer is a disease of body cells. One's mental condition has no direct effect on the course of the disease since this malignant change is apparently due to physical process. But positive attitudes, fighting spirits and healthy thinking helps you to cope with cancer better. SO,it has an indirect bearing on response to cancer treatment.

Does radiation cause cancer? Do Cell phones cause Cancer?

Indiscriminate use of X-rays frequently may increase your chances of getting cancer. Lately, there are certain reports quoting higher incidence of Leukaemia and Brain Tumours in persons using Cellphone. But this needs further research.

Defence Measures Called For

How can one guard against cancer

Prevention is better than cure. More than half of the cancers are preventable! Avoid smoking and tobacco chewing in any form. Alcohol should only be taken in moderation. It is better avoided. Take low fat, vegetarian diet. Avoid ill fitting dentures, Report to doctor immediately if you notice any of seven warning signals.

What is meant by a "precancerous lesion"

Any abnormal condition that, if permitted to continue, may develop into cancer with passage of time. Cancer does not form in day's or week's time. It takes many years to develop. It passes through many stages normal cell __ abnormal cell __ Precancerous lesion __ Frank cancer -- Metastasic cancer.

What are some of the more important precancerous lesions

White spots on mucous (lining) membranes, especially of the mouth; non healing sores caused by jagged teeth and illfitting dental plates; dark coloured moles which itch or bleed. These should all be investigated by a physician and adequately treated. Submucous fibrosis with inability to open mouth, polyps in large intestine Barret's oesophagus associated with reflux oesophagitis are some of the conditions which should alarm the patient and physician. These require careful monitoring.

What precautions should be taken to avoid cancer of the mouth

Cancer of mouth is a largely preventable disease. Avoid use of tobacco in any form (pan masala, gutkha etc.) Any sore in mouth which does not heal in three weeks time should be examined by doctor and if required biopsied. : Keep the mouth clean. Have jagged teeth filed or removed. Do not use an ill-fitting dental plate, which causes a sore on the gums or cheek. If white spots appear in the mouth or on the tongue, stop the use of tobacco and see a doctor.

What precautions should be taken to avoid cancer of the skin

Dark coloured moles and warts, which become itchy or bleed or ulcerate should be removed. Fair-skinned people should avoid overexposure to direct sun rays. Recurrent blisters. on the lip should be carefully examined. Skin should always be kept clean.

Should all moles be removed

No. A flat colourless mole is probably as harmless as afreckie. Bluish-black hairless moles, especially when subjected to irritation, should be removed. Any mole or wart showing changes in size or colour or bleeding should be promptly and completely removed and the tissue examined by a pathologist to determine if cancer is present.

Can immunity to cancer be acquired as with diptheria or typhoid fever

Production of immunity is possible only in diseases caused by germs. As cancer is not caused by germs, immunity cannot be developed against it. But scientists are exploring possibilities of vaccines for cancer.

Why do many people wait before consulting a physician when cancer may be present or suspected

Primarily because of fear. Ignorance of the signs of cancer and the vital importance of early treatment also playa role. Some people also think there is a social disgrace in having cancer and so hide the fact from their physicians and often from friends and relatives. This is not a justifiable attitude.

Can a tuberculous person ever have cancer

He can. The presence of tuberculosis or any other disease gives no assurance that cancer will not develop.

Why don't the white corpuscles in the blood kill cancer

The chief function of white blood corpuscles is to protect the body against bacteria or germs. They kill germs and combat infection. Current research is being undertaken to promote such activity by certain kinds of white blood corpuscles.

How can we control cancer

  1. By a prompt visit to a physician when suspicious signs or symptoms appear. Intelligent alertness by the individual may well save his life.
  2. By having complete, annual physical examinations, as a routine. Women over 35 should be examined once a year.
  3. By confirming diagnosis at the earliest possible moment, followed by adequate treatment.
  4. By a widespread knowledge, both layman and professional, of the character of cancer, its causes, methods of spread, and by recognising the value of early diagnosis and adequate treatment, as the means of protection.
  5. Most important is prevention of cancer by change of lifestyles.

How To Detect It?

How can you tell if you have cancer without seeing a doctor

You can only suspect. A regular thorough physical check-up is your best guard against cancer, plus an examination when one of the seven danger signals or warning appears. You are the first line of defence against cancer because, you alone, can recognise a danger signal.

What are some of the early signs of cancer

There are seven common ones. They are often called the Seven Danger Signals of Cancer.

  1. Change in bowel or bladder habits.
  2. A sore that does not heal.
  3. Unusual bleeding or discharge.
  4. Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere.
  5. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing.
  6. Obvious change in wart or mole.
  7. Nagging cough or hoarseness.

You should at once consult a doctor upon the appearance of any sign.

Is pain an early symptom of cancer

No, except in a cancer involving bone or nerve tissue. Pain usually is a late symptom and when it occurs, the growth is often far advanced.

Why should cancer be diagnosed and treated early

The sooner it is found it is less likely to have spread to other parts of the body. Early cancer can be cured.

How long it is safe to wait before consulting a physician

Any delay is dangerous. Go at once to a doctor and ask for a thorough examination.

Why are periodic examination necessary

The earlier a cancer is treated the greater are the chances of a cure. Through periodic examinations, cancer may be detected in its early stages, before the individual has noticed any sign or symptom in himself.

Where can you get a Cancer check-up

RGCI to Apollo Hospitals has all screening facilities. Any individual with or without warning signals can come for check-up. Indian cancer society also runs several check up clinics.

What comprises a thorough cancer check-up

Thorough cancer check up means examination of all accessible bodyparts likeheadandneck,oral cavity, chest, abdomen,breast, vaginal and rectalexamination. Cancer screening at RGCI&RC alsoincludes certain bloodtests, Xray chest,US whole abdomen,mammogram, pap'ssmear, sputumexam,stoolfor occultblood andPSA (for prostate). Oinical examination andall investigations aredoneat nominal rates.

Is the check-up painful

The check-up takes only an hour and is completely painless. You may phone and get an appointment.

What is mammography

Mammography is a special X-ray examination of the breast tissues. It is a quite sensitive test to pick up early lesions of the breast.

What is a pap smear

The papanicolaou Test, (or pap smear) is in fact a microscopic examination of the cells exfoliated from the uterus and cervix. The doctor takes a swab from the tissue surface for examination. This test warns patients of the presence of early pre-cancerous lesion.

Is bleeding always a sign of cancer

No. Bleeding should be promptly and carefully investigated, to determine if it is due to cancer. A small percentage of patients with blood stained discharge from nipple have cancer. Bleeding from other body openings, such as rectum or bladder, should be carefully investigated to rule out cancer. Unnatural vaginal bleeding, especially after the age of 50 can be a very suspicious sign of cancer.

Dose blood in stool indicate cancer

Stool streaked with bright blood or the occurrence of black or "tarry" stools should lead to prompt and thorough investigation. The assumption that rectal bleeding is merely due to hemorrhoids, or piles, is most dangerous, since such bleeding may be due to multiple causes, including cancer.

Does blood in the urine indicate cancer

It may. But it may also be caused by conditions other than cancer. A careful examination is essential to rule out cancer.

Is it true that cancer generally develops among people in poor health

There is no known relation between the status of one's health and the development of cancer. Poor genital hygiene and poor oral hygiene may be contributory factor in cancer causation.

How can we diagnose cancer of the stomach

Upper G-I endoscopy is the best investigation for diagnosing stomach cancer. A flexible tube (Endoscope) is passed through mouth and introduced into food pipe and stomach for telescopic visualization. Biopsy can be taken if any lesion is found in stomach or food pipe.

How are cancers in the head and neck region diagnosed

Cancers in the head and neck region can be diagnosed by simple clinical examination which includes visualisation of oral cavity and voice box with the help of head light and mirror. Any growth, ulcer or white patch is biopsied to confirm the clinical diagnosis. This is then reported by an experienced Histo-pathologist in the laboratory. In India more than 40% of male cancers arise in mouth and throat.

What techniques are used to detect cancer

There is no substitute to good clinical examination. Ultrasound, X-Rays, CT Scan, MRI & Mammography are some of diagnostic imaging tools. Various blood tests (PSA, AFP) and endoscopic procedures are also available to clinch the diagnosis. Cytology (FNAC) or Biopsy of lesion is desirable before starting any treatment.

How To Treat It?

How should cancer be treated

By surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of all these in the earliest possible stage of the disease. All these methods are available in India at various Hospitals. RGCI & RC provides all diagnostic and treatment facilities under one roof. The emphasis on cancer treatment should be on multimodal management.

Are radiation treatments good for all kinds of cancer

No. Treatment depends on type and location of the growth. Some cancers will not respond to radiation treatment but must be treated by surgery or with hormones and chemotherapy.

How does Radiation act

Radiation destroys dividing cells including cancer cells. Normal cells are also damaged. But now sophisticated machines are available which spare normal tissues and destroy cancer tissue with precision.

What is Internal Radiation

Wires or tubes containing radioactive material are inserted into the cancer growth or in the tissue surrounding it, and removed after treatment is concluded. Radio-active material in suitable containers may also be placed in contact with the groMh as in cancer cervix. Nowadays, endo-Iuminal RT is also available for cancer of tubular structures like bronchus.

How effective is Surgery

Surgery is most effective in the early stages when cancer has not yet spread. Major aadvances in plastic and reconstructive surgery, and anaesthesiology have ensured a very high degree of success.

What is Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy implies treatment with anti-cancer drugs and injections. Today we have a large number of highly effective drugs for cancer control.

Can the spread of cancer be stopped or retarded temporarily

At times only. Certain types of cancerous growths, which can not be expected to be curable, may be controlled temporarily by CT/Hormones/RT. Sooner or later, however, these growths fail to respond to further treatment.

What should you do if you think you may have cancer

Report at once for a thorough examination by the Cancer Specialist.

Is cancer curable

More than 80% of cancers today are completely curable if treated early. At times, however, cures
have been obtained after the cancers have been present for a long time. The type of cancer and
stage of cancer have an important bearing on its curability.

Is it ever possible to state that a cancer has been completely cured. If so, how much time must pass beforethe "cure" is recognised

After a cancer patient has been treated and has remained free of recurrence of disease for a period of five years, the chances for re-appearance of the tumour are small. Occasionally cancer recurs ten or twenty years later. So, a life long follow up is a must for cancer patients to detect recurrence of disease as well as to detect other cancers.

If you have been cured of cancer, can you develop another cancer? In the same place ? In some other part ofthe body

Yes. Regardless of a patient's past medical history including the successful treatment of a previous cancer, he/she should be examined at regula r intervals. Because of the tendency for cancer to reappear at the place of a previously existing growth or nearby, a patient should have a regular follow up as advised by the Doctor. A new cancer may also appear at another part of the body.

Is there any known vaccine cure for cancer

No. A vaccine is of value only against a disease due to a germ. Cancer is not caused by a germ, therefore serums are of no value in its treatment, But researches are ongoing to find tumour vaccines for different cancers.

Is it ever safe to rely on salves to "cure" cancer

No. Paste or salve can not penetrate the tissues deep enough to destroy deep seated cancer cells.

What are side effects of Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy causes temporary side effects like nausea, vomiting, loss of hair and bone marrow
suppression. Side effects of chemotherapy vary with drug schedule used.

Will hormones cure cancer

There is evidence today to indicate that treatment with certain hormones may prolong life, and alleviate pain and suffering in certain breast and prostate cancers. Hormones are also useful as adjuvant after definitive treatment.

What is Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a new development based on the theory that the human body can be taught to defend itself against diseases including cancer. Immunotherapy is being tried in cancers like melanoma, renal cell carcinoma etc.

What is the latest and most successful of the recently reported cancer treatments

There is no single modality of treatment, which can achieve cure. Emphasis is on multimodal treatment e.g. combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone treatment. Now gene therapy & immunotherapy are upcoming modes of treatment but they are in experimental stage.

Is any real progress being made in cancer research? Along what lines

A lot of progress has been made in cancer research. We have understood cancer behaviour better. Diagnostic facilities have improved. Operative methods and radiation techniques have also improved. Newer chemotherapy drugs have been launched. Future is not far off when we will have gene therapy and vaccines for cancer treatment.

What are your chances of getting cured

More than 80% of the patient treated adequately in the early stages can be cured. Your chances of recovery are excellent, if you report for treatment very early after the cancer has developed.

Can you lead a normal life after cancer

The sooner you come for treatment, the better the quality of life after cancer. Most cancer patients can return to their normal lives, even during treatment.

Are cancers in men and women different

There are no fundamental differences in cancers in men and women. Most important thing is that common male cancers (lung and oral) are preventable because they are caused by tobacco. Female cancers (Breast, cervix) can be detected early and cured.

What forms of cancer are more common among men than women

Cancer of the mouth, throat, gullet, stomach, rectum, larynx, lung, skin and brain are all more common in men than in women. Gall bladder and thyroid cancers are more frequent in women.

Does smoking or tobacco and pan chewing cause cancer

Smoking and tobacco chewing are known to cause cancer of the mouth, throat, lungs etc. Therefore, it is best to play safe. If you smoke or chew tobacco, make every effort to stop. Stop smoking and tobacco chewing and prevent cancer!

Can cancer result from sexual intercourse

No. There is no known relationship between cancer and sexual activity on the part of the male or female. However women who have multiple sexual partners run a greater risk of getting cervix cancer.

Is cancer of the prostate common ? At what age does it generally occur

Yes. Cancer of the prostate is one of the most common forms of cancer in older men in USA. Men should be on guard against this form of cancer especially as they approach 60. A thorough physical examination, including a rectal examination, blood test (PSA) and TRUS are the only ways to discover this hidden cancer early enough for cure.

Cancer In Women

Do more women than men die of cancer

No.The misconception that cancer is primarily a woman's disease is due to the frequency of cancer of the breast and cancer of the reproductive organs in women, in comparison with the more varied occurrence of cancer in men.

Does cancer occur more frequently among married or unmarried women

Reports from death certificates show that above the age of 40, the cancer death rate is higher among single women than among married women of the same ages. Single women have higher death rates from cancer of the breast and married.women have more cancer of the cervix. physicians believe that having the first child around the age of 20 is preventive against cancer of the breast. Multiple sexual partners increase the risk of cancer of the cervix.

Is there danger in watching a lump in the breast to "see what happens"

Yes, a very grave danger. Time is the most important factor in the control of cancer and waiting to "see what happens" may permit a curable cancer to become incurable. This may allow it to spread to other parts of body and make the treatment more difficult.

Are all breast lumps cancerous

No. Only small percentage of lumps are cancerous. Careful physical examination and mammography can differentiate benign from malignant lump. Biopsy & FNAC of lump by a competent pathologist can clinch the diagnosis.

What precautions should be taken to avoid cancer of the breast

Every woman above the age of 40 should have her breasts examined annually by a physician. Every women after the age of 35 years should be taught how to examine her own breasts (monthly after her periods). Screening Mammography should be encouraged at the age of 40 years onward and then every 2 yearly. Soon we will have genetic markers to detect high risk group of women who are likely to develop breast cancer or ovarian cancer.

How should you examine your breasts

Self examination of the breast should be done in the following ways after periods are over. Post menopausal women should examine their breasts every month.

  1. Sit or stand in front of a mirror, with your arms relaxed at your sides, and examine your breasts carefully for any changes in size and shape. Look for any puckering or dimpling of the skin, and for any discharge or change in the nipples. Compare one breast with the other.
  2. Raise both your arms over your head,and look for exactly the same changes. See if there is any change since you last examined your breasts.
  3. You should feel for a lump or thickening in the breast tissues. Lie down on your bed, or on the floor. Put a pillow or a bath towel under your left shoulder, and place your left hand under your head. With the fingers of your right hand held together flat, press gently but firmly with small circular motions to feel the inner, upper quarter of your left breast, starting at your~ breast bone and going ~ outward toward the nipple~ line. Also feel the areas around the nipple.
  4. With the same gentle pressure next feel the lower, inner parts of your breast.
  5. Now bring your left arm down to your side, and still using the flat part of your fingers, feel unde your armpit.
  6. Use the same gentle pressure to feel the upper, outer quarter of your breast from the nipple line to where your arm is resting.
  7. 7. And finally, feel the lower, outer section of your breast, proceeding from the outer part to the nipple.
  8. Repeat the entire procedure, for the right breast.

What precautions should be taken to avoid cancer of the uterus (womb)

Have all unnatural vaginal discharges investigated. Up to the age of thirty-five have an annual examination by Gynaecologist. Bleeding after the age of 50 yrs.(After menopause) calls for a physician's examination at once. Avoid multiple sex partners. Cervix cancer can be prevented by screening.

Do uterine fibroids ever become cancerous

Fibroid tumours only very rarely undergo IlicIlignant change.

Cancer In Children

Can cancer develop in children? At what age

No age is free from cancer. Certain forms of cancer, especially of the eyes and blood are found in young children.

If a parent dies of cancer, are the children more likely to have the disease

The answer is no. In many families where a parent had cancer, the disease does not appear in the children. Again, a person whose family has no record of cancer may develop it. A tendency to develop breast cancer however runs in families. Even colon cancers are known to be familial.

Does cancer develop more quickly in children than in older people

The rate of growth at any age depends upon the type of cancer, though cancer does grow faster at younger ages.

If detected in time, can cancer in a child be cured more quickly than in an adult.

The cure of cancer has little relationship with age. It depends upon the extent of growth at the time it is detected, the adequacy of the treatment given, as well as the type of cancer detected. CANCER AND YOU:

How can deaths be reduced

Cancer deaths can be reduced by following means:

  1. Cancer is preventable by living a simple life like no tobacco chewing or smoking, vegetarian high roughage low fat diet, no alcohol and use of fresh fruits & fresh vegetables. Half of the cancers can be prevented by changing our own life styles.
  2. Early detection by screening before symptoms appear.
  3. Early detection in symptomatic patients. Treat them early with multimodal treatment.
  4. Provide good care under one roof with all ultramodern gadgetry. Even if it is advanced disease, try to improve quality of life. "Add life to years in advanced cases".

Does cancer usually cost more to cure, than other major diseases

It often does. It depends upon the type of cancer you have and how much must be done to treat it. Many hospitals provide free treatment to those who cannot afford to pay.

Why are quacks dangerous

For the following reasons, among others

  1. Few quacks are medically trained; therefore, they have no fundamental knowledge about cancer.
  2. They cause the patient to lose valuable time that should be used to obtain correct treatment.
  3. The pastes and "medicines" used by quacks have no value in curing cancer.
  4. The quack takes the patient's money under false pretenses, thus depriving him of the means for obtaining competent treatment in time to enable him/her to be cured.

How can I differentiate a quack from are reputable physician

If a person advertise a cure, guarantees a cure, or employs a method of diagnosis or treatment not generally accepted or endorsed by the medical profession, may be classed as a quack. No reputed ethical physician will do any of these things.

Is cancer frightening

Only if you neglect it. Today more and more people are not only winning their fight against cancer, they are also able to lead a normal, active life.

Diet during cancer treatment

Eating a healthy well balanced diet containing fresh fruits and vegetables should be continued during cancer therapy to give energy and promote healing.

Look for these early warning signals of cancer

  • Change in Bowl or bladder habits
  • A sore that doesn’t heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
  • Indigestion or difficulty in swelling
  • Obvious change in wart or mode
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness